Another escalation of this hostility was the entry into force of a series of defence agreements between the United States and Australia, New Zealand and Japan (ANS) and the creation of SEATO in 1954 as a regional security alliance structure, which China believed was not only against Soviet influence, but also needed to stem China`s development. U.S. military engagement in the Pacific has led to the early deployment of its military troops to the region, and such deployment activities have greatly reinforced the idea of “containment” on the Chinese side.  The strategic engagement between the United States and China covers a wide range of specific practices and interactions, including economic cooperation, public diplomacy, military and foreign assistance between the United States and China. This phase of engagement dates back to the late 1960s, after an intense period of hostility caused by indirect confrontations between the two countries, notably during the Korean War and the Vietnam War. With U.S. support for Taiwan during the Taiwan Strait crisis and its military expansion in the Pacific, relations have become more antagonistic, with the Chinese government viewing these initiatives as a U.S. attempt to encircle China.  The political upheavals following the Cultural Revolution in China and their attachment to communism through political radicalism accelerated the conflict.
The four presidencies that preceded the Bush administration should take a national political orientation towards strategic ambiguity or deliberate ambiguity, particularly in relations with China.  In October 2018, Vice President Mike Pence delivered a speech at the Hudson Institute on China, in which he signaled the end of strategic engagement and officially announced a new stage in bilateral relations, strategic competition.  President Obama visited China during his first year in office, becoming the first president of the United States to do so. With his “Pivot to Asia” proclamation, Obama has overhauled the direction of U.S. foreign policy, and engagement with China in all important policy areas remains a priority during his two terms in office. In general, relations between two countries have focused on peaceful cooperation, with a markedly reduced dependence on military rhetoric, and have seen a largely positive development during Obama`s first term, but have gradually been characterized by more complex layers of dynamics and have accompanied global threats in recent years by the Obama administration.